One Who Never Observe the Fasting Without Excuse.

I am 28 years old and I have never fast a whole Ramadhan in my life. But now I intend to fast this year Insya Allah. How should I make up for the fasts that I have not observed?

 All the Praise be to Allah SWT. Peace and Blessing be upon His Messenger.

  Obligatory To Observe The Fast.

 Muslims observe the fasting in the month of Ramadhan because it is an obligatory to do so as Allah SWT has commanded them to do so: “O you who believe! Observing As-Sawm (the fasting) is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become Al-Muttaqun (pious)” [Al-Baqarah, 2:183] Fasting Ramadhan is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. The Prophet SAW  said: “Islam is built upon five pillars: testifying that there is no god except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, performing Prayer, paying the zakah, making the pilgrimage to the Sacred House (Hajj), and fasting the month of Ramadhan.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]

 On that premise, it is obligatory to observe the fast, unless he has a legitimate syari’e excuse. One is given the excuse if one was unable to observe it due to as sickness [menstruation, pregnancy, labour or childbirth, breastfeeding etc], travelling. But one needs to make up [qada] the missed days. Allah SWT says: “…, but if any one is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed period (should be made up) by days later. Allah intends every facility for you; He does not want to put you to difficulties. (He wants you) to complete the prescribed period, and to glorify Him in that He has guided you; and perchance ye shall be grateful” [Al-Baqarah. 2:185]

 The one, who deliberately did not observe the fast with no valid excuse, falls outside the excuse given under the syari’e, and thus he is not entitling to any excuse in this regard. There are several situation of failing to fast.

 1. Failed To Observe the Fast With Legitimate Excuse.

 Sheikh Ahmad Kutty Says: The scholars and jurists are of the opinion that whoever has failed to fast for some legitimate reasons or another, one is obligated to make up for it if he or she can unless one is terminally ill or advanced in age, which entitle not to qada but feed the poor each day he missed.

 Allah Says: “[Fasting for] for a fixed number of days; but if any of you is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed number (should be made up) from days later. For those who can do it (with hardship), is a ransom, the feeding of one that is indigent[poor] but he that will give more, of his own free will, it is better for him. And it is better for you that ye fast, if ye only knew. [Al-Baqarah, 2:184]

 Ibn ‘Abbas said: “It was permitted for the very elderly man (or woman) to feed a poor person for every day (that he did not fast), and he did not have to make up for the days.” [Ad-Daraqutni and Al-Hakim]

 Shaikh Ibn ‘Uthaimin said: Breaking the fast during the day in Ramadhan with no excuse is a major sin, which makes a person a fasiq (rebellious evildoer). He has to repent to Allah and make up the day when he broke the fast. This means that if he had commence the fast but then during the day  he broke the fast with no valid excuse, then he is a sinner, and he has to make up the days he broke the fast, because when he started the fast it became binding upon him to complete it, as in the case of a vow. [Majmu’ Fatawa Al-Shaikh Ibn ‘Uthaimin, 19, Question No. 45.]

 

 Sheikh Ahmad Kutty Says: Some scholars say that the one who did not observe solah and [fasts] deliberately need not have to make up them as he was a kafir, consequences of not observing prayer or fasts. Hr has to repent. Repentance would revert to Islam and becoming a Muslim, which would, erases all the sins done. The text and sahih stipulates if one deliberately fails to observe the solah, whether out of laziness or denial the solah and obligatory [fast], he is a kafir.

 The Prophet SAW said: “Whoever does an action that is not in accordance with this matter of ours will have it rejected.”[Narrated by Al-Bukhari, 2697; Muslim, 1718.] 

 Allah Says: “And whoever transgresses the limits ordained by Allah, then such are the Zalimun (wrongdoers)” [Al-Baqarah, 2:229]

 Imam Ibn Taimiyyah said: If a person who had been away from Islam and now is repentant of his past sins and looks forward to leading a responsible Islamic life is not obligated to make up for the Solah or Fasts he or she had missed or neglected to do in the past. Rather, it is adequate for him or her to repent [for not fasting] and seek Allah for forgiveness; [regretted of the sins and resolve not to repeat]; and embarking on lots of righteous deeds.] His reasoning is that to insist that they should make up for their prayers and fasts would only serve as a deterrent against their repentance; in other words, it would not encourage them to come forward and repent. Ibn Taimiyyah says that since the main thrust of the Qur’an and the Sunnah is to give hope for the sinners and give them glad tidings so that they wholeheartedly embrace the path of repentance, such a ruling is closer to the spirit of these laws. The view of Ibn Taimiyyah is founded on a sound understanding of the wisdom and purposes of the syari`ah laws.]

 [Shaikh Ahmad Kutty]

 Shaikh Muhammad Ibn Salih Al-‘Uthaimin said: He does not have to qada or make up those fasts because with regard to every act of worship that is prescribed at a specific time, if a person delays it beyond that time deliberately without any valid excuse, Allah SWT would not accept it from him. So there is no point in making them up. But he has to sincerely repent to Allah SWT, regretted about it, and promised not to repeat them and now observe the obligations dutifully [remain constant] and perform a lot of righteous deeds. Whoever repents, Allah SWT would accept his repentance.

 “And verily, I am indeed forgiving to him who repents, believes (in My Oneness, and associates none in worship with Me) and does righteous good deeds, and then remains constant in doing them (till his death)” [Ta-Ha, 20:82]

 [Majmu’ Fatawa Al-Shaikh Ibn ‘Uthaimin, 19, Question No. 41]

 3. Deliberately Did Not Initiate To Fast.

 Shaikh Ibn ‘Uthaimin said: If he deliberately did not initiate to fast at all without excuse, then he does not have to make it up, because that will be of no benefit to him, for it will never be accepted from him.

 The basic principle with regard to every act of worship that is connected to a specific time is that if it is delayed beyond that time with no excuse, it will not be accepted.

 The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) clearly said: “Whoever does an action that is not in accordance with this matter of ours will have it rejected.”[[Narrated by Al-Bukhari, 2697; Muslim, 1718.]

  And this is a transgression of the sacred limits of Allah, and transgressing the sacred limits of Allah is zulm (wrongdoing), and the wrongdoer’s deeds are not accepted.

 Allah says: “And whoever transgresses the limits ordained by Allah, then such are the Zalimun (wrongdoers)” [Al-Baqarah 2:229]

 4. Done Outside Of Time Frame.

 If he did act of worship before the time for it prescribe, it would not be accepted from him, and by the same token if he does it after the time for it is over, it will not be accepted from him, unless he had an excuse.

 [Majmu’ Fatawa Al-Shaikh Ibn ‘Uthaimin, 19, Question No. 45.]

 And Allah knows best.

 ©Islam Q&A

Prophet Muhammad SAW, “Whoever broke even one fast of Ramadhan without an excuse or sickness, even if he fast the whole life after that, it will not compensate what he missed” (At-Tirmidzi).

 

2. Did Not Observe The Fasting At All.

About Md Radzi Ahmad
A retired Malaysian civil servant. Served the Malaysian government for thirty-one years. Posted to London, Rangoon, Johannesburg, Pretoria and Bangkok. Born in Kampong Hutan Kandeh, Alor Star, Kedah. Educated at Sultan Abdul Hamid College, Alor Star and University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. Currently resides in Subang Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan,Malaysia.Blessed with three children, a son, two daughters, daughter in law and two grandaughters.

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